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16 February 2017
 

ENARTIS STAB REVOLUTION - PART 1: CHILL OUT, ENARTIS ALTERNATIVE TO COLD STABILIZATION

In today’s wine market, it is crucial for wines to be visually appealing to consumers: any haze or precipitate is unacceptable and can damage brand reputation. This technical newsletter series will cover the main instabilities that we encounter in wine and the Enartis approach for successfully managing them.

ENARTIS STAB REVOLUTION

In today’s wine market, it is crucial for wines to be visually appealing to consumers: any haze or precipitate is unacceptable and can damage brand reputation. This technical newsletter series will cover the main instabilities that we encounter in wine and the Enartis approach for successfully managing them.

PART 1: CHILL OUT, ENARTIS ALTERNATIVE TO COLD STABILIZATION

February 2017

CHILL OUT is an integrated process of stabilization with the use of colloids. It is a proven strategy that consists of a series of operations from harvest to bottling with the objective of stabilizing wine using colloids.

1-       PROTEIN STABILITY

Where are wine proteins coming from? Most proteins found in wine come from grapes, even if microorganisms, enzymes and protein fining agents also account for a substantial fraction. Their content in grapes varies with vintage, grape variety, soil, climate and vineyard practices.

How can we protein stabilize a wine? Unstable proteins are commonly removed by using bentonite. Based on their composition, bentonites have different properties and their ability to remove proteins, the volume of lees produced and aromatic impact can vary. Protein stability can be improved from the earliest stages of winemaking using tannins, enzymes with side proteasic activity and mannoproteins, thus reducing bentonite treatments and consequently preserving better aromatic quality.

How to find the appropriate dosage of bentonite to achieve stability. Bentonite Fining Trials offered by Vinquiry Laboratories by Enartis USA determine the amount of bentonite needed to stabilize a wine. It is important to test with the specific bentonite you will be using in the winery.

Blending two protein-stable wines can compromise the final stability. Even small changes in alcohol content, pH and colloid composition can lead to protein instability. The final blend should be tested and additional fining may be needed.

2-       TARTRATE AND COLOR STABILITY

Tartrate stabilization methods such as cooling, contact seeding and electrodialysis prevent precipitation by removing unstable ions or salts from wine. These methods are time and labor intensive, expensive, require copious amounts of water and energy and can change organoleptic qualities of wine. Colloidal stabilizers, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) can be used to inhibit the precipitation of tartrate crystals by disrupting the crystallization process. Their use speeds-up wine preparation, respects sensory properties, removes the need for refrigeration and reduces production costs and wine losses.

What is CMC? CMC is a cellulose derivative characterized by its polymerization and substitution degrees; parameters affecting viscosity and solubility. Due to its negative charge at wine pH, CMC interacts with the electropositive surfaces of crystals, thus inhibiting their growth and precipitation. CMC flattens the crystal surface, which becomes unable to grow.

How do we determine the right addition rate of CMC? There is no formula to recommend a product or dose to stabilize a wine. Colloidal stabilizers need to be tested to determine the dosage required to reach stability. Vinquiry Laboratories by Enartis USA offers CMC Panels for White, Rosé, Red and Sparkling Wines.

What are the interactions between CMC and proteins? CMC has the ability to crosslink with proteins in wine to form a haze. Consequently, wines must be protein and colloid stable before any CMC additions. Lysozyme, being a protein, can generate a haze if present.

Enartis Cellogum LV 20: a unique form of CMC. A 20% CMC solution is easily homogenized in wine, requires less contact time and has no effect on wine filterability when used as recommended.

Colloidal stabilizers and crossflow filtration. We recommend adding colloidal stabilizers after crossflow filtration when wines are clear (turbidity <1 NTU) and ready to be bottled.

What about CMC in red wines? CMC is widely used to stabilize red wines. Because it can react with color matter and generate precipitation, in red wines, CMC should be used in combination with gum Arabic such as Maxigum, which is effective in stabilizing color matter. Enartis Stab Mega combines the action of CMC with gum Arabic and mannoproteins.

What are the requirements for adding stabilizing colloids to wine?

Prior to the addition of CMC products wines should be:

  • Heat stable
  • Turbidity <1 NTU
  • Filterable: Filterability Index <12
  • Colloid stable

 Tips for using Enartis CHILL OUT products

 

CITROGUM

ENARTIS CELLOGUM

LV 20

ENARTIS CELLOGUM MIX

ENARTIS STAB MEGA

ENARTIS CLK +

MAXIGUM

COMPOSITION

Seyal Arabic Gum

Low Viscosity CMC

CMC
Seyal Arabic Gum

CMC

Verek Arabic Gum

Yeast Mannoproteins

Yeast Mannoproteins

Verek Arabic Gum

ADDITION RATE

50-200 mL/hL

25-50 mL/hL

30-100 mL/hL

150 mL/hL

5-20 g/hL

20-100 mL/hL

TYPE OF STABILIZATION

Tartrate

Tartrate

Tartrate

Tartrate

Color Matter

Tartrate

Color Matter

EFFECTIVENESS

Medium

Medium/High

Medium/High

Medium/High

Medium

Medium

ORGANOLEPTIC IMPACT

++

-

+

+++

++++

+++

WINE REQUIREMENTS BEFORE ADDITION

<1 NTU

<1 NTU

<1 NTU

<1 NTU

<1 NTU

<1 NTU

-

Heat Stable

Heat Stable

Heat Stable

-

-

-

Colloid Stable

Colloid Stable

Colloid Stable

-

-

>50⁰F

>50⁰F

>50⁰F

>57⁰F

>50⁰F

>57⁰F

FI<12

FI<12

FI<12

FI<12

FI<12

FI<12

ADDITION TIMING

 (before microfiltration)

3-24 Hours

3-24 Hours

3-24 Hours

1-2 Days*

2 Days

1-2 Days*

FI: Filterability Index; % change conductivity after mini-contact test. *Waiting time depends on product dosage, initial wine FI and membrane pore size.

Want to know more about our CHILL OUT program?

If you have any questions or would like to set-up trials, please give us a call at (707) 838-6312.

 

 
 

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